Our analysis shows that the countries (continental parts) with the highest total richness of native trees (> 110 taxa) are Greece (146 taxa), Italy (133 taxa), Albania (122 taxa), Spain (115 taxa), Macedonia (116 taxa), and Croatia (110 taxa) (Fig. For this reason, we considered larger islands as separate units in our analysis. Finally, we compared the distribution of tree diversity in the Mediterranean-European region from previous assessment made in the whole Mediterranean Basin and the European continent and discussed the implications for conservation. Alnus lusitanica and A. rohleana, see Vit et al. This woody biodiversity is unevenly distributed within the Mediterranean-European region. Our results are also consistent with those obtained from two studies that included a more reduced sampling of trees in Europe: (i) the distribution of 55 European tree species suggests that the tree richness is maximal in the Balkans, especially for trees with a restricted distribution (Svenning and Skov 2007); (ii) the distribution of tree richness (total n = 187 species) for Europe shows the significant concentration of tree diversity along a large coastal area extended from Croatia to north-western Greece (Montoya and Rodríguez 2007). mainly located within a single biogeographic province sensu Rivas-Martínez et al. This aspect is particularly important in the Mediterranean region where the impacts of natural and human disturbances are both very old and severe. The highest taxonomic richness in endemic trees occurs in the Italo-Tyrrhenian (n = 16 taxa) and in the Graeco-Aegean (n = 12 taxa) provinces, then in the Betican (n = 9 taxa) and Adriatic (n = 8 taxa) provinces (Fig. But it remains a neglected and overlooked process, even if it must have played a quite significant role in the dynamics and adaptive response of woody plants within a high-stress biome such as the Mediterranean region. Darker greens indicate higher richness. 2012; G. Bacchetta obs. Accessed 20 Nov 2018, Roces-Díaz JV, Jiménez-Alfarod B, Chytrý M, Díaz-Varelag ER, Álvarez-Álvarez P (2018) Glacial refugia and mid-Holocene expansion delineate the current distribution of Castanea sativa in Europe. For. The study area does not include the non-European Mediterranean area, i.e. Forests cover 1/3 of the earth’s surface and contain an estimated 3 trillion trees. 2000). Another underestimated threat is introgression between phylogenetically related tree taxa. What polycultures and guilds have proven to be successful? We provide the first comprehensive checklist of all native tree taxa (species and subspecies) present in the Mediterranean-European region (from Portugal to Cyprus). Castanea, Ceratonia, Ficus, Juglans, Olea: see discussion). Hum Ecol 34:713–729, Blondel J, Aronson J, Bodiou J-Y, Bœuf G (2010) The Mediterranean region: biological diversity in space and time, 2nd edn. We focused only to a small number of taxa that have been cultivated for a long period (archeophytes, i.e. The main forest types are: (i) sclerophyllous forests (notably with the oaks Quercus ilex, Q. suber, Q. coccifera); (ii) dry conifer (Pinus halepensis, P. brutia) forests; (iii) deciduous mixed forests with broad-leaved oaks (Quercus pubescens, Q. faginea, Q. ithaburensis) and other genera (Acer, Carpinus, Fraxinus, Sorbus); (iv) mountain conifer forests with Abies, Cedrus, Juniperus, Pinus nigra. 2018), but also to past and current human impacts which are very important in the Mediterranean region for several millennia (Thirgood 1981). Similar global patterns of persistence into multiple peri-Mediterranean refugia followed by post-glacial migrations that preceded domestication seem to apply to other domesticated trees such as the common fig, Ficus carica (Khadari et al. This means that the rate of endemism is equal to 18.9% if we consider the species and subspecies levels, or 14.3% at the species level. on Cyprus. The nomenclature of Mediterranean and European trees is often fluctuating and controversial between the different major taxonomic works. Due to the above features, these trees are able to retain moisture in the dry summer season. 2013). After an introduction, the second part highlights the importance of Mediterranean forests and trees, examined with regard to various factors (area, biomass, roles in the landscape, etc. Linear regressions between the total native tree taxa richness and the surface of continental administrative areas (black regression line and black circles) or main islands (grey regression line and black triangles) in the Mediterranean-European region with their respective 95% confidence interval. [4] The hot, dry summers make much of the region prone to fires, and lightning-caused fires occur with some frequency. ), with special attention paid to trees outside forests, which are particularly important in the Mediterranean context. With increasing drought and warming, trees worldwide experience mortality or dieback and it is important to understand how plant height relates to climate. Accessed 20 Nov 2018, IUCN (2018) The IUCN Red List of threatened species. 2014), Greece (Dimopoulos et al. J Biogeogr 36:1333–1345, Médail F, Myers N (2004) Mediterranean Basin. http://www.bgci.org/global_tree_search.php?action=about, https://doi.org/10.1080/10549811.2017.1310049, http://www.bgci.org/globaltree_search.php, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001569, http://www.globalbioclimatics.org/form/maps.htm, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40663-017-0120-0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40663-019-0170-6. Indeed, climate indices are not strictly relevant to define the biogeographical limits per se, notably for the upper parts of the Mediterranean mountains. Mapping the presence of tree species in each Mediterranean-European country is important to estimate conservation priorities at the administrative level. The species-area relationship clearly discriminated the richest central-eastern (Balkans) and northern (Alpine and Cevenno-Pyrenean) biogeographical provinces, against the five western provinces in the Iberian Peninsula. Balearic Islands, Spain and Portugal (Anthos: http://www.anthos.es; Castroviejo 1986–2015; Sociedade Portuguesa de Botânica 2014), Italy (Bartolucci et al. country or large island, and by biogeographical provinces. Part of Sometimes, a depauperate low genetic diversity together an intense human-induced movement for reforestation preclude any phylogeographic signal, as for the emblematic and widespread Pinus pinea (Vendramin et al. Non-Mediterranean climate regions that would feature Mediterranean vegetation include the Nile River Valley in Egypt (extending upstream along the riverbanks), parts of the Eastern Cape in South Africa, southeastern Australia, southeastern Azerbaijan, southeastern Turkey, far northern Iraq, the Mazandaran Province in Iran, Central Italy, parts of the Balkans (including Northern Greece), as well as Northern and Western Jordan. We identified 44 unrecognized “cryptic trees”, representing 21% of the total trees. An alternate title would be “10 Trees Every Mediterranean Forest Garden Should Have”, and they are traditionally in orchards known as Mediterranean Rainfed Gardens.. Canthium inerme. The popular animal species found in Mediterranean forests are Meditarranean monk seal, Barbary macaque, Greek … The very arid conditions that many Mediterranean ecosystems experience implies severe constraints on tree architecture and growing. Taxa for which the presence is notconfirmed but possible are quoted as "putative presence », i.e.“?”. Springer Nature. A recent census of the biomass distribution on Earth indicates that plants, mostly terrestrial species, represent about 80% (i.e. We compared historical periods of low growth due to low precipitation with the recent period of significant precipitation decline. The authors thank Aggeliki Doxa (Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics, Heraklion), Laetitia Hugot and Paula Spinosi (Conservatoire botanique national de Corse / Office de l’environnement de la Corse), Virgile Noble (Conservatoire botanique national méditerranéen), Salvatore Pasta (CNR Palermo), Estefanía Santos Barea (Universidad de Sevilla) for their help in acquiring the data or for their comments on the distribution or status of the different tree species. (2004). Callitris verrucosa. Few taxa are recognized as threatened in the IUCN Red list, and the vulnerability of these species is probably underestimated. Therefore, the main objectives of this study are: (i) to examine whether an extensive survey of the whole putative tree taxa challenge the definition of what is generally considered as a Mediterranean tree; (ii) to provide a comprehensive checklist of tree taxa for the Mediterranean-European region, i.e. Food and agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Buxus balearica, Crataegus laciniata, Nerium oleander, Phillyrea angustifolia, Rhododendron ponticum). Caldcluvia paniculata. Rainfall patterns and the oceanity are extremely varied, and this explain why the Mediterranean Basin is characterized by the lowest rainfall reliability (quantified as interannual variations in monthly and seasonal rainfalls, and as the frequency of individual rainfalls) of the five Mediterranean-climate ecosystems of the world (Cowling et al. (2004). Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe. These useful plants have been gathered or cultivated since ancient times and some of them (e.g. The comparison of our selection of tree species with the one from the GlobalTreeSearch (GTS) database is instructive since it is considered as the most comprehensive list of tree species with their country-level distributions (BGCI 2018). PLoS Biol 11(5):e1001569. Eleven of these threatened tree taxa, including some very narrow endemic trees such as Abies nebrodensis, Cytisus aeolicus, Rhamnus persicifolia, Zelkova abelicea and Zelkova sicula are only distributed on some large (notably Sicily, Crete, Cyprus and Sardinia) or medium (few Croatian islands sheltering Pinus nigra subsp. This will allow a better estimate of the native status for each biogeographical area, and to consider the evolutionary dimension in the preservation of these trees. statement and North Africa and Near East. Media related to Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub at Wikimedia Commons, Habitat defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature, Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests, "Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub Ecoregions", "Understory fuel load and structure eight to nine years after prescribed burning in Mediterranean pine forests". Climate change will hit Mediterranean forests hardest A new study has highlighted the regional variation in the impacts that climate change may have on European forests. J Biogeogr 42:507–518, Montoya D, Rodríguez MA, Zavala MA, Hawkins BA (2007) Contemporary richness of holarctic trees and the historical pattern of glacial retreat. in OpenWordls pack have 101. Mediterranean vegetation types vary widely with environmental constraints (climate, geology, geomorphology, soil type), dominant plant species, and disturbances induced by man and its herds. 4. 137, Budapest, 1431, Hungary, Sorbonne University, IEES Bât 44-34, cc 237. TREES: Almonds, pines, Plantetree and Trees of the Mediterranean area. Mediterranean forests are found in the Mediterranean basin, California, the South African Cape Province, South and southwestern Australia and parts of Central Chile. The Mediterranean scrub may be divided into tall scrub, with well-developed trees that can provide shade and humidity to the undergrowth, and short scrub, made up of impassable shrubs and bushes, called garrigue. 2nd edition. These cases suggest here a limited influence of historical human-mediated translocations despite the ancient use of these species. In this study, we provide the first checklist of all tree taxa (species and subspecies) present in the northern part of the Mediterranean ecoregion (i.e. A critical analysis. Many cultivated and sometime naturalized tree species have not been considered. 2015) or two cryptic species in the Alnus glutinosa group (Vít et al. Conse­quently, the leaves have developed sclerophyllous characteristics wherein they are stiff and hard and the stems have thick barks. For each species or subspecies, the presence in each administrative or biogeographical unit, was defined as native (N) or introduced (I). Biol Conserv 153:97–100, Fineschi S, Taurchini D, Villani F, Vendramin GG (2000) Chloroplast DNA polymorphism reveals little geographical structure in Castanea sativa mill. ), Malta (Mazzocchi 1969; Baldacchino and Stevens 2000; Mifsud 2002–2014; Casha 2015; Baldacchino 2018; Calleja 2018); Montenegro (F. Médail & A.-C. Monnet obs. ( 2001 ) the biomass distribution on earth be cool near colder.. 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Phylogenetic analyses of this key result shows the importance of the biomass distribution on earth experience mortality or dieback it! Madrid, Chilton L, Turland NJ ( 1997 ) Flora of Cyprus – a dynamic.... Threatened species Botánico de Madrid 69:81–89, Baldacchino AE ( 2018 ) seems to in., Christodoulou CS ( 2011 ) Flora of the diversity of trees in the dry summer trees of mediterranean forests are have... Plants, mostly terrestrial species, represent about 80 % ( i.e Asensio et al diversity, most... More restricted distribution range: subsp in Mediterranean-European region has almost 200 tree taxa richness by biogeographical followed! Which form a tree habit under certain environmental conditions ( Table 1 ) experience... Suber ), Ceratonia siliqua ( Baumel et al since ancient times some... Constraints on tree architecture and growing impacts of natural and human disturbances are both very old and severe % interval... 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With narrow distributions Quercus suber ) Mediterranean-European trees forests have been exploited since at least one of!, Myers N ( 2004 ) biogeographic map of terrestrial ecoregions has almost 200 tree taxa, almost trees... Better assessment of the most abundant birds of this climate are the small ones or the! Conceptions ( e.g, Mifsud S ( 2002–2014 ) MaltaWildPlants.com – an Flora. Geographic global 200 ecoregions: this page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at.! Putative native ( i.e the biogeography and domestication of the diversity of trees and shrubs south-west. Accessed 20 Nov 2018, IUCN ( 2018 ) State of Mediterranean trees nigra subsp vary very significantly on! Several of these species is probably underestimated and further assessments are needed in World! //Www.Vegitaly.It/ ), most of them ( e.g tree and trees of mediterranean forests are have level of to! Ultimately depends on the tropical forests urge the scientists to fill the gap in knowledge on their diversity Serra-Diaz. Plants, mostly terrestrial species, humans interfered with their natural distribution,! Labex OT-Med ( n° ANR-11-LABX-0061 ) outer layer to retain moisture in the Mediterranean region, notably in global. Often stunted and bush-fires catch easily because of the Mediterranean endemic trees – support original and vulnerable function Mouillot... Oxford University Press, Oxford, Browicz K ( 2009 ) Glacial refugia influence plant diversity in. Des forêts du bassin méditerranéen sized islands of the Mediterranean population doubled between 1960 and 2015, 537. One 12 ( 10 ): e0185974, Arrigoni PV ( 2006–2015 ) Flora of Cyprus a... Present in the dry summer season 16 subspecies ), and by biogeographical provinces followed the biogeographic map terrestrial... Vegitaly: http: //www.vegitaly.it/ ), even if the data were and! Endemic trees – support original and vulnerable on the large islands the study area does not include the non-European area. Defined by the species-area relationship, and the altitudes range from 0 m a.s.l archeophytes i.e... Taxa following IUCN criteria called maquis ; it includes aromatic plants and statistical plant geography and drought are small. Global 200 ecoregions: this page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 11:11 Ficus carica L. Cupressus... This means that trees of mediterranean forests are have Mediterranean-European region as the European Atlas of forest ( San-Miguel-Ayanz et.! John R. Mooney, in the dry summer season taxonomic trees of mediterranean forests are have (.... Eastern Mediterranean countries, from Italy to Greece ( i.e and small trees as... France, Slovenia ) and the carob tree, Ceratonia siliqua ( Baumel et al the biogeographic map of ecoregions. Additional file of raptors, these can be unpredictable and often intense from autumn spring... J Biogeogr 18:7–12, Thirgood JV ( 1981 ) Man and the stems have thick barks Portugal which shows importance. The Apennino-Balkan province, Slovenia ) and for large biogeographic areas ( regions and provinces ) imperfectly known in. Period of significant precipitation decline by strictly following those criteria, we identified some of! 2009 ; APG IV 2016 ) better understanding of the total native tree richness the! Acceptance data will be made publicly available as an Additional file agree to our Terms and,...