Basic Computer Architecture CSCE 496/896: Embedded Systems Witawas Srisa-an Review of Computer Architecture Credit: Most of the slides are made by Prof. Wayne Wolf who is the author of the textbook. August 21, 2008 6 Importance of Technology New technologies not only provide greater speed, size and reliability at lower cost, but more importantly these dictate the kinds of structures that can be considered and thus come to shape our whole view of what a computer is. It is compatible with most off-the-shelf computer programs and applications. Assume some background information from CSCE 430 or equivalent —e.g. VEER SURENDRA SAI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, BURLA, ODISHA Lecture notes of BCS-203 COMPUTER ORGANIZATION (3-1-0 ) Text Books: 1. Bell & Newell Download Computer Memory PPT | PDF | Presentation: Memory is an internal storage area in a computer, which is availed to store data and programs either permanently or temporarily. Virtual Memory is a concept used in some large computer systems that permit the user to construct programs as though a large memory space were available, equal to the totality of auxiliary memory. A virtual memory system provides a mechanism for translating program-generated addresses into correct main memory locations. Architecture & Organization 1 •Architecture is those attributes visible to the programmer —Instruction set, number of bits used for data representation, I/O mechanisms, addressing techniques. The memory hierarchy design in a computer system mainly includes different storage devices. Generally, memory/storage is classified into 2 categories: Volatile Memory: This loses its … Computer System Architecture, Morris Mano, PHI Reference Books: 1. The memory unit stores the binary information in the form of bits. In the late l950's and early l960's, the gap was wide enough between memory technologies and eventually, to high-level procedural languages. Computer Architecture & Organization, William Stallings, Pearson Prerequisite 1. Computer memory is broadly divided into two groups and they are: Primary memory and; Secondary memory Flash memory technology is today a mature technology. I made some modifications to the note for clarity. In general, the storage of memory can be classified into two categories such as volatile as well as non- volatile. The name, therefore, dis-tinguishes flash devices from EEPROMs, where each byte is erased individually. A memory unit is the collection of storage units or devices together. This extra memory is actually called virtual memory and it is a section of a hard that's set up to emulate the computer's RAM. Flash memory technology is a mix of EPROM and EEPROM technologies. Paging technique plays an important role in implementing virtual memory. It provides excellent performance and value. The term ÒflashÓ was chosen because a large chunk of memory could be erased at one time. Advancing software technology allowed programming to move to the assembly language level and, denser and faster, the number of registers and the complexity of the instruction sets were increased. —e.g. Is there a multiply instruction? •Organization is how features are implemented —Control signals, interfaces, memory technology. Computer Organization , Hamacher, TMH 2. A memory element is the set of storage devices which stores the binary data in the type of bits. Its latest and most popular models include Intel hyper thread technology that speed up processor speed . Internal Memory Computer Organization and Architecture Semiconductor main memory • Early computers used doughnut shaped ferromagnetic loops called cores for each bit • Main memory was often referred to as “core” memory or just “core” • Term persists: e.g. CS152 Computer Architecture and Engineering Lecture 19 Locality and Memory Technology - Title: CS152 Computer Architecture and Engineering Subject: Memory Technology Author: John Kubiatowicz Last modified by: Bob Brodersen Created Date | PowerPoint PPT presentation | free to view Knowledge of digital circuit 2. Memory Organization in Computer Architecture. Memory Hierarchy in Computer Architecture. AMD : The AMD computer processor is exclusively made by Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD). computer architecture, mid-2000s onward. Is the set of storage devices which stores the binary information in the type of.! & Newell a memory element is the set of storage devices which stores the binary information in the type bits! 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