Keep in mind that it is pointless to feed supplements when forage requirements are not met. The feed troughs should run along the length of the walking area with a water trough in the middle. Under the zero-grazing system, cattle are confined in one place where feed and water are brought to the animals. If it is too shallow, spillage and wastage of feed will occur. Compost may be covered with soil or plastic. One cow can produce up to 20 tons of compost per year depending on availability of crop residues. Welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder (zero-grazing) production systems in Nairobi and its environs J W Aleri, J Nguhiu-Mwangi, E M Mogoa and C M Mulei Department of Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, P.O. The milking place should be constructed next to the cubicles. Groups of 8 steers weighing 300–400 kg (660–880 Ib) were rotationally grazed on a ryegrass‐dominant pasture for 115 days. Tips to a profitable modern zero grazing dairy enterprise, Best onion varieties in Kenya that will give you Sh. Livestock Kenya Remended Zero Grazing Housing Plan. This prevents the cow from entering too far into the cubicle and ensures that the urine and dung will drop on the walking area. Note that the most expensively built stable is not always the best and most economical one. For a given number of cows to a unit, extra cubicles are required to house young-stock (heifers). Above is a layout of a zero grazing unit five cows. Under the zero-grazing system, cattle are confined in one place where feed and water are brought to the animals. Other animal husbandry activities such as animal health, are also carried out under zero grazing. Manure should be treated carefully to reap maximum benefit from it. If a farmer chooses to make it optional, then clean milk production is not guaranteed. The quality and quantity of construction material should be assessed thoroughly to determine the least possible cost while maintaining quality of the house. You can buy or rent more land for animal feed or purchase feed from neighbors. Cattle as an ‘ecological tool’ The herd was reduced to 7500 head (which remains the largest single Boran herd in the world), and was divided into dozens of small grazing mobs of 100-150 cattle, which are each managed by two herders and gradually moved around the grasslands. Many small scale dairy farmers in Kenya are adopting zero grazing because of the several benefits associated with it. The approach to grazing cattle also changed significantly. Cows are confined and therefore use most of the energy from feeds for growth and milk production. These options, in zero-grazing and semi zero-grazing, are necessary when you have inadequate financial and cannot meet the labour and high skills demanded by zero – grazing. Manure can also be stored as compost made from dung, urine and plant materials. The cubicles and walking area are optional. Cows fed to capacity on grasses alone have the potential to produce up to a maximum of 7 Kg of milk per day. Noise during milking may disturb the cow making it hold back some of her milk. The pit mayor may not be cemented. The cow shed must be functional, cheap and long lasting. The concrete should be mixed in the following ratio: 1 bag cement + 2 wheelbarrows sand + 3 wheelbarrows ballast. My Husband Has Addictive Urge With No Boundaries, Half of all formally employed Kenyans earn Sh. The optional parts can then be added as money becomes available. Usually, farmers keep cattle either for milk or beef, or both. Important dairy breeds of cattle in Kenya for high-milk yield are Jersey, Ayrshire, Guernsey, Friesian and Sahiwal. East africa Dairy Development project, nairobi, Kenya. The aim should always be to produce the highest amount of dry matter (DM) per unit area of fodder grown. One option is starting with semi-zero grazing as a first step before turning to full zero- grazing unit. In Kenya, the majority of small-scale farmers keep these breeds under zero-grazing or semi-zero grazing units. The sides should be open to allow for free air flow around the calf pen. The site where the unit is built determines the efficiency of operations throughout the modern zero grazing unit. A horizontal line of timber is nailed along the vertical ones at 3 feet above the feed trough. It is situated opposite the store next to the calf pen. Cattle and poultry sectors in Kenya 1. Check with your local county office to obtain the required permits prior to building or renovating your existing facility. The cubicle should be constructed such that the cow remains clean all the time. The possibility that animals are stressed because of too much confinement inside the zero grazing unit. Camel farming in Kenya. Some of the breeds that are bred specifically for beef include Boran, Sahiwal (and its crosses) and Fleckvieh. There is minimum movement of cattle because they are not allowed to graze in the fields and thus the term zero grazing. ... Top four dairy breeds in Kenya: The good, the bad and the ugly 30th Jan, 2021. Finally, one should as much as possible, carry out regular maintenance of the zero-grazing unit while in use. The mixture is dried and milled. There are a bunch of other features too: wheels, cameras, controls, latch bars and so forth; although whether wheels can be strictly termed a feature in machinery that won’t work without them is debatable. AN IDEAL ZERO GRAZING COW HOUSE. The water trough should be placed such that both the young stock and the mature cows have access to it instead of constructing separate trough for each side (the unit divided to separate young and mature stock). No roofing is required for this area except under very hot conditions like in the Coastal region. Invest in a chaff-cutter to mill crop residues for feed so that nothing goes to waste. A cubicle has a length of 210 cm (7ft) and a width of 120 cm (4 ft). If valued against current fertilizer prices this composition is valued at Kshs. Saves land for other enterprises by allowing the use of high yielding fodder crops like Napier. In this way, concentrates, minerals, milk utensils and other small equipments can be stored near to the animals. Your email address will not be published. isBn: 92–9146–272–1 production of this manual was funded by the East africa Dairy Development project. Innovative livestock farmers have come up with home-mix dairy rations. Under the zero-grazing system, cattle are confined in one place where feed and water are brought to the animals. And all this is due to a lack of understanding of the pertinent requirements for a profitable zero grazing enterprise. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. What can i say?? The animals are kept inside which is more secure and protect them from attack by predators. Fighting between young stock and cows will not occur due to the boundary created between them. One of the greatest problems is providing good quality feed to the herd during the dry season. Water should be available throughout the day as it makes the bulk of the milk. Other animal husbandry activities such as animal health, are also carried out under zero grazing. This type of housing does not expose cattle much to environmental hazards compared to open grazing. Approximate weight is 200kg; therefore, one full-grown cow is roughly Ksh.44,0000. Cows are unbroken and fed within the stall all year. Jerseys), the measurements can also be smaller (6’6” x 3’7”). Latest Posts. The floor of the calf pen should be slatted and raised by half to one (1/2-1) foot above the concrete floor. Plant 0.75 – 1 acre of napier grass per mature cow and her offspring. Enables on farm clean milk production. Much capital is required for construction of a ‘zero-grazing unit. This will ensure no fighting occurs between young animals and cows. The grass must be cut and fed fresh … Zero grazing dairy cattle units Proper farm structures contribute to the performance of a dairy system as well as comfort of the animals and the attendants. The floor under the slats can be concrete or not. Choose the most suitable fodder to your locality. Proximity to the homestead in relation to the biogas plant is also an important consideration. Zero grazing is the practice of confining dairy cattle in a stall and feeding them there instead of letting them graze the fields. Box 29053-00625, Kangemi, Kenya. Manure can be stored in a small pit dug out of the soil. Wastage should be less than 5%, and refused material must be removed from the feeding area daily, as this will decompose rapidly. In this case the following items are required in addition, for a 5 cubicles unit: 5 pieces of 3 metres long (gauge 28 or 30), To prevent high investment costs, it is advisable to make use, as much as possible, of local materials and where possible from the farm. Dairy cattle breeds like Friesian, Aryshire and Jersey are usually reared for milk in intensive systems. Little or no time is spent on herding the animals. Supplement at a rate of 1 kg for each 1.5 litres of milk the cow produces on top of the 7 Kg of milk contributed by grass. The choice of site influences the security and protection of animals from rain, sunshine and other weather effects. Harvest the mature napier grass after it has grown to 60-90cm in height. The slope should allow for easy cleaning of the milking and walking area. But the most important thing is to have your ration formula right. Ensure that the correct site, considering the direction of wind, is chosen for the unit. Stock the units with dairy cows that have been bred specifically for their high milk yield. Researchers put 548 zebu cattle under surveillance and assessed their infection and clinical status every five weeks. The floor should be flat and made of firm concrete and slope towards the walking area. The advantage of a movable calf pen is that it can be taken to the family house, for example when the weather is too cold. This will make it easy for all animals to reach the mineral box. The walking area is about 3 meters wide i.e. Close observation of the animals is possible, making heat detection and attendance to animals easier and faster. This depends on the type of unit and whether zebus, cross breeds or pure dairy cattle are kept. Complete guide on Zero Grazing housing designs in Kenya, dairy cattle housing and layout of dairy farm, Understanding Milk Fever Disorder on Dairy Cows, A program on how can we leverage on our vast agricultural resources to build thriving economies, ensure food security and uplift the lives of our communities, Step by Step on Oyster Mushroom Cultivation, Mushroom farming huge prospects from veteran farmers, What You Need to Know to Start Mushroom Farming in Kenya, All you need to know to succeed in Mushroom farming business. Zero-grazing in Kenya is a good system for keeping dairy cattle in densely populated, high potential areas, where land per farm family is small. Wokabi: Should you buy the Sh. Cows are kept and fed inside the stall all year. If the cows are small in size (i.e. “Animals subjected to zero-grazing systems had 80 per cent lower chance of contracting ECF than in farms where there is no tick control,” noted the study. This makes it possible to collect urine and manure. The time requirement is about 3 man hours/cow/day. Zero grazing in Kenya .pdf. This means that the tasks of some of the family members may increase. Majority of dairy animals in Kenya are kept by smallholder farmers under zero grazing or semi zero grazing systems. They can therefore be used for both larger and smaller breeds as need arise. A neck-pole is fixed across the cubicle. Zero grazing or stall feeding is basically confining dairy cattle in a stall and feeding them there. Each of the Kenyan smallholder zero-grazing dairy units has 2 to 10 milking cows most of which are exotic breeds (Friesian, Ayrshire, Guernsey, Jersey or crosses of these exotic breeds). A good cow in Kenya can fetch you Ksh220 per kilo. This will enable the farmer to appreciate the high financial and labour demands of zero-grazing before getting involved. Zero-grazing is an intensive system of dairy production that allows for easy monitoring of your stock. alerijw@uonbi.ac.ke Abstract Many livestock farmers have raised enquiries about the best practices for a profitable zero grazing enterprise. Your email address will not be published. The dairy or livestock extension officer will provide the right measurements for the size of the pit to hold slurry (manure) for at-least two days for any number of cows in the unit. Accordingly, these parts or areas are as listed below. Many smallholder dairy farmers in Kenya are embracing the zero grazing model of dairy production because of the many benefits accruing from it. Home » AGRIBUSINESS » Tips to a profitable modern zero grazing dairy enterprise. 4.2.5 Number of Cattle ... population in the Kenyan highlands. Note that the most expensively built stab… The milking place should be kept clean. Cover the manure pit to prevent nitrogen losses. This can limit fighting among cows and between cows and young stock for access to the mineral. Zero-grazing system requires intensive (a lot of) labour for cutting and carrying fodder crops (e.g. Zero grazing means you are giving the livestock, usually cattle, freshly harvested, green forages like grass, daily. Zero grazing requires an increased level of labor input, due to the need to cut grass daily. This can be the case where farm size is large enough to allow for free grazing. The quality and quantity of construction material should be assessed thoroughly to determine the least possible cost while maintaining quality of the house. For this sort of beef farming in Kenya yo succeed, it is worth noting that, the requisite weight gain cannot be achieved without ensuring cattle entering a feedlot system are … Apply 4 bags (@ 50 kg) of compound NPK fertilizer (20-10-10) per acre per year. A ratio of 70:30 is recommended. A well designed farm structure should be able to: Reduce the cost of the materials or utilize locally available materials. You will need the skills of a qualified professional to come up with the right mixture of the feeds available to your cows. Below is a list of the recommended number of cubicles for a given number of cows. 200,000 a month from hydroponics farming, One Planet Fellowship targets African researchers and scientists working on climate change, agriculture solutions, Kenyan lady returns from abroad to turn dry Turkana into green farms, Simple ways to add value to potatoes for more money, Anne Mugo: I invested in a farmer’s rice farm in Mwea and lost big, 8 mistakes to avoid in tomato farming in Kenya, The Day My Son Took My Place In My Marriage, Pay shocker for all teachers, civil servants, police as salaries reduced, Number of Kenyans blacklisted on CRB hits 14 million, A Company I had Worked for 10 years Never Gave Me Pay Rise, Promotion, I Almost Quit, These are the latest prices of plots in Nairobi estates. In feeding the cows the forage to concentrate ratio cannot surpass 60:40 percent. It is important to know all the rules and regulations with respect to location, design, and type of operation. Dairy cattle breeds like Friesian, Aryshire and Jersey are usually reared for milk in intensive systems. 120 cm (4 ft) by 210 cm (7 ft). Cows must have adequate feeding space, and wastage must be monitored, to ensure feed intake is maximized. (including followers – heifers or bulls): Number of Cows:                 Number of cubicles: 1 cow                                      2 cubicles, 2 cows                                    3 cubicles, 3 cows                                    5 cubbies, 4 cows                                    6 cubicles, 5 cows                                    7 cubicles, 6 cows                                    9 cubicles, A mineral box can be fixed at the head of each cubicle for individual mineral supply to each cow. There is minimum movement of cattle because they are not allowed to graze in the fields and thus the term zero grazing. Each cow then has its own feeding space. Other concentrates like sunflower seed cake, cotton seed cake and bran are available. It enables cows to conserve energy usually wasted during grazing to turn it into more milk for higher profits. Majority of dairy animals in Kenya are kept by smallholder farmers under zero grazing or semi zero grazing systems. Problems facing beef farming in Kenya. 2.2 million 2014 Honda CRV? The raised and slatted floor makes it easier to clean the calf pen floor and the concrete under it. Elephant (nappier) grass (penisetum puperum) grass is preferred as the main fodder crop because it has the advantage of being relatively easy to grow and re-grows rapidly after cutting. This place is for a fodder chopping equipment (chaff cutter) and the chopped fodder. Fighting can also be prevented to constructing vertical poles a long the inside of the feed trough at intervals of 2.5 to 3 feet. The animals are better protected against diseases, especially tick-borne diseases. The recommended measurements for a cubicle are based on pure breed cows (Friesians and Ayrshires). 30,000 and below, Edward Kwach: I lost my job at Kiss after punching Collo over my wallet, Late Laboso’s husband, sister in fierce fight over Sh. The choice of an artisan is important because a lot of expensive material can be wasted by hiring a bad artisan. If sufficient funds are available both feed and water troughs can be made of bricks and cement (assuming that concrete is more costly in relation to costs of drums and timber). Forages take time to establish as opposed to concentrates which can be purchased on demand. The trough is constructed such that its outside is raised to prevent spillage of feed. The floor should slope from the milking place towards urine and dung collecting pit located at one end of the walking area. The zero grazing housing system has various areas some of which are essential and therefore must be included in the structure while others are optional and need not necessarily be part of the unit. But it should be easy to clean. Zero grazing uses machinery to bring the forage to the cattle in the barn instead of rotating the cattle through the areas where the forage is grown. po Box 30709 – 00100, nairobi, Kenya tel: +254 20 422 3000 correct citation: lukuyu B, Gachuiri cK, lukuyu mn, lusweti c and mwendia s (eds). Its appeal is that it allows cattle to consume fresh grass from fields that are too far away, or are separated by busy road, to be included in the grazing rotation. However, it is much better to use the above standard measurements for a cubicle because the size fits most animals. It ought to be close to as potential to the supply of forage to scale back labor prices of carrying the cut grass to the cows and car… The floor of the working area is made of concrete. In this way, the animal has a comfortable place which is cheap and easy to maintain. Proper planning is therefore required before starting a zero-grazing system. A calf pen can also be situated on the side of a cubicle or milking place. The choice of an artisan is important because a lot of expensive material can be wasted by hiring a bad artisan. I intent to build a zero grazing dairy unit. Inputs like dairy meal and drugs are kept in the living house before a store is built. Some of the breeds that are bred specifically for beef include Boran, Sahiwal (and its crosses) and Fleckvieh. It should not be too small for the cow or too big to allow the cow to turn around inside the cubicle. A daily intake of 75-100kg of fresh grass/cow can be achieved with good management to give a dry matter intake of 14-16kg/day. Planning ahead is critical to ensure there is always adequate forage available for the animals. An example of a modern zero grazing unit in dairy farming in Kenya. Unoccupied cubicles are a waste of space and money. One can chop napier grass or any other fodder in an open space next to the unit, therefore, a fodder-chopping area is optional. i) Pests such as tsetse flies and diseases such as nagana, rinderpest, foot and mouth and east coast fever.Controling the disease might be difficult since these diseases are constantly spread by wild animals. Usually, farmers keep cattle either for milk or beef, or both. ... Cattle (beef and dairy) and poultry (meat) were selected because of their relevance for the national ... 3.1 Intensive (zero grazing) Intensive dairy systems involve confinement of animals, a high level of management and optimum feed Enormous costs in setting up zero grazing dairy enterprise, best onion varieties in are... Husbandry activities such as murrum house should ensure minimal smell from manure pit raised and slatted makes... However be built later-on when funds are available with dairy cows that have bred... 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