Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The plan was rejected due to the difficulty of supplying a landing force and the vulnerability of such a force to a land counter-attack; subsequent proposals were rejected for the same reasons. The covering force guarded the ships from a point 5 nmi (5.8 mi; 9.3 km) distant, having engaged two German destroyers as they tried to reach Zeebrugge, sinking S20. The raid began with a diversion against the mile-long Zeebrugge mole, led by the old cruiser, Vindictive, with two Mersey ferries, Daffodil and Iris II. Interested in participating in the Publishing Partner Program? On the 11th it sank the torpedo gunboat Niger near the Deal LV, returning the next day to Zeebrugge because of bad weather. Boat of WWI , World War One: Jutland , World War One: The Somme , Halt U-Boats in Zeebrugge. The three ships were accompanied by two old submarines, which were filled with explosives to blow up the viaduct connecting the mole to the shore. [8], In the first hour of the bombardment, the German response was limited to anti-aircraft fire and attempts to jam the wireless of the artillery-observation aircraft. In 1916, Commodore Reginald Tyrwhitt proposed an attack to block Zeebrugge, which was rejected. To cover their approach, another old cruiser, HMS Vindictive, and supporting vessels were to land seamen and Marines to attack gun batteries on the harbor mole. ), so no delay in getting to Bruges and back from your cruise ship. Germany’s submarine force came close to winning the war with unrestricted attacks on British trade from 1917. Several attempts to close the Flanders ports by bombardment failed and Operation Hush, a 1917 plan to advance up the coast, proved abortive. [27], In 1931, the official historian, Sir Henry Newbolt, wrote that before the raid, two submarines entered or left the Flanders bases each day and continued at that rate during the week after the raid. [14], By 1917 the German defences on the Flanders coast included Kaiser Wilhelm II, a heavy artillery battery at Knokke, east of the Bruges Canal, of four 12 in (300 mm) guns, with a range of 41,000 yd (23 mi; 37 km) and the Tirpitz battery of four 11 in (280 mm) guns, with a range of 35,000 yd (20 mi; 32 km), 1.5 mi (2.4 km) west of Ostend. At that time Zeebrugge had the longest harbour mole in the world at around 1.5 miles. Snaaskerke, Belgium 3 contributions 4 helpful votes. Date of experience: June 2019. WWI U-boats UC 16. The basin north of the locks had been hit and some damage caused to the docks but Zeebrugge remained open to German destroyers and U-boats. The Zeebrugge Raid conducted on this day 100 years ago was in many ways a suicide mission. This product data sheet is originally written in English. The raid was approved in January 1918 and volunteer crews were obtained from the Grand Fleet "to perform a hazardous service". However, before we disembarked for the Brussels tour and when we returned to the ship after the tour we had the opportunity to observe the coming and going of a number of different types of vessels from this port. Flanders U-boat flotillas. The firing buoy and its bearing and range from the target were established using the Zeebrugge method and the escorting ships formed a square around the bombardment ships. Halt U-boats in Zeebrugge McGreal, Stephen, 1954- Zeebrugge and Ostend raids 1918 Pitt, Barrie. … The Herald of Free Enterprise was a roll-on, roll-off ferry with one large, open space running the length of the boat… Dover marks the centenary of the Zeebrugge Raid Close As World War One dragged into its fourth year the British desperately wanted to halt attacks on shipping by German submarines. Most of the casualties were buried in England either because they died of their wounds en route or because the survivors recovered their bodies to repatriate them. Flanders-based U-boats proved a major thorn in the side of the Royal Navy and maritime traffic in the North Sea and Channel. [8], Attempts to bombard Ostend on 26 and 27 May were abandoned because of poor weather but on 4 June, the bombardment ships sailed for the Ratel Bank off Ostend; the bombardment force was smaller and the covering force larger than for the Zeebrugge operation, since surprise was less likely. Our cruise ship berthed here primarily so that passengers could undertake shore excursions to Brugge or Brussels. A full and exciting account of the Zeebrugge raid, on St. George’s Day, April 23rd, 1918, in which the author won the VC – one of eight won in the raid. An attempt to raid Zeebrugge was made on 2 April 1918 but was cancelled at the last moment, after the wind direction changed and made it impossible to lay a smokescreen to cover the ships. Zeebrugge Raid, (22–23 April 1918), naval engagement of World War I. Terminals & port companies; Liner services Desperate to counter the German U-boat offensive in World War I, British Commodore Sir Roger Keyes devised a bold plan to block the Bruges Canal in occupied Belgium, which linked German submarine pens to the open sea. Nickname(s), Flanders flotilla. The raid was proposed in 1917 by Admiral Sir John Jellicoe but was not authorised until Keyes adapted Bacon's plan for a blocking operation, to make it difficult for German ships and submarines to leave the port. Vindictive was to land a force of 200 sailors and a battalion of Royal Marines, at the entrance to the Bruges–Ostend Canal, to destroy German gun positions. Shuttles leave Zeebrugge between 8.30AM-12PM (noon), and return from Bruges in the afternoon. As ship sinkings by U-boats increased, finding a way to close the ports became urgent and the Admiralty became more willing to consider a raid. During the Passchendaele offensive of 1917, the Allies attempted to capture these U-boat bases by means of a land-based attack. Where to start. Two seaplanes which attempted to approach the fleet were driven off by fighter seaplanes, which escorted the fleet home. [35][36][f] German casualties were eight dead and sixteen wounded. Such conditions were unlikely to recur for several days, making a bombardment on the following day most unlikely. The troops were to be conveyed to Zeebrugge in HMS Vindictive, assisted by the Iris and the Daffodil, two Mersey ferry boats that had been provided for this operation. The port was used by the Imperial German Navy as a base for U-boats … During the Passchendaele offensive of 1917, the Allies attempted to capture these U-boat bases by means of a land-based attack. [13] As the long methodical bombardments of Ostend and Zeebrugge had proved impractical, Bacon attached a large monitor to the forces which patrolled coastal barrages, ready to exploit opportunities of favourable wind and weather to bombard Zeebrugge and Ostend, which occurred several times but had no effect on the working of the ports. U-boats, shuttling between the ports using Belgium’s inland canals, penetrated British minefields that protected the cross-Channel lines of communication 30 times a month. The failure of the Battle of Passchendaele made it clear that a naval assault was the only solution. There are two U-Boats on Zeebrugge marked U-117 and U-118. A bombardment of the Zeebrugge lockgates under cover of a smoke screen was studied by Vice Admiral Sir Reginald Bacon, commander of the Dover Patrol and the Admiralty in late 1915 but was also rejected as too risky. Bramble, H. Bruce Woolfe. Over 40.000 pages on the officers, the boats, technology and the Allied efforts to counter the U-boat threat. The Germans removed two piers in the western bank of the canal near the block ships and dredged a channel through the silt near their sterns. Free parking space can easily be found in the vicinity. A reconstruction of the Dover Patrol's bottling up of a U-boat base. The transfer of these resources however was threatened by the continuing war at sea and the U-Boat menace that also threatened Britain's link with the continent. Already on the 9th of November a very first U-boat entered the harbour of Zeebrugge, which had been completely cleared of mines two days earlier. The German U-boat bases were situated at Bruges, Zeebrugge and Ostend in Belgium. On the night of 22–23 April little went according to plan. The first indications of the … [38], On 23 April 1964, some of the 46 survivors of the raid, families, the Mayor of Deal and a large Royal Marines honour guard held a service of commemoration for their fallen comrades at the Royal Marines barracks in Deal; a tree was planted near the officers' quarters in remembrance. Updates? The port was used by the Imperial German Navy as a base for U-boats and light shipping, which were a threat to Allied control of the English Channel and southern North Sea. Bacon calculated that 252 shells would be necessary and that it would take at least 84 minutes to fire them. Zeebrugge, joined to its historical mother city Bruges by the Baudouin Canal, is a seaport and seaside resort with potential. More bombardments were planned but these were all postponed because essential conditions of tide and weather were not met. There would have been plenty more had all volunteers been accepted. Select Your Cookie Preferences. The dockyard was hit by twenty out of 115 shells and intelligence reports noted the sinking of a lighter, a UC-boat, damage to three destroyers and that the German command had been made anxious about the security of the coast. Eventually the submarine HMS C3 commanded by Lieutenant Richard Sandford, destroyed the viaduct when its demolition charge exploded. Want to sail, but don't want to take the risk: Choose a FiloSafe boat with 100% refund. [7] Two relieving aircraft also had engine trouble and failed to arrive. In the meantime, more information about the article and the author can be found by clicking on the author’s name. Main navigation. During the Passchendaele offensive of 1917, the Allies attempted to capture these U-boat bases by means of a land-based attack. Thetis did not make it to the canal entrance, after it hit an obstruction and was scuttled prematurely. Zeebrugge and Ostend raids 1918 Lemoine, André H. (André Herman), 1938- Suspense à Zeebrugge, 1918 Martin, Joseph, Greatest raids. [9] The Admiralty concluded that had the monitors been ready to fire as soon as the observer in the artillery-observation aircraft signalled, or if the shoot had been reported throughout, the lock gates would have been hit. Helpful. [4], The bombardment would have to be undertaken at long range, because of the danger of return fire from the Kaiser Wilhelm battery at Knokke and meant aiming at a target 90 by 30 ft (27.4 by 9.1 m) in area at a range of 13 mi (11 nmi; 21 km), using directions from an artillery-observation aircraft. [30] Bacon wrote in 1931 that he was a seagoing commander with intimate knowledge of the tidal and navigational conditions in the Ostend and Zeebrugge areas; operational failures were due in part to the appointment of Keyes (an Admiralty man) and his changes to plans Bacon had laid. Corrections? Base, Bruges, Belgium. [8] Bacon returned with the impression that the bombardment had succeeded, but aerial photographs taken the following week revealed that about fifteen shells had landed within a few yards of the lock gates on the western side and four shells had fallen as close on the eastern side. U-boats in the Black Se a • Some U-boats were based at Varna • Their mail was generally processed via the depot ship General based at Constantinople, which used MSP 14 • General also processed mail for other German military forces in the region, so submarine mail can only be identified if annotated by a sender. One of the most important German U-boat bases was entered via a canal reaching the sea at Zeebrugge. On the night of 22-23 April 1918, the Royal Navy (RN) carried out an audacious raid on the German held ports of Zeebrugge and Ostend in occupied Belgium. The attack on Zeebrugge is slightly more successful: the British manage to sink the block ships in the mouth of the harbour but the closure is only partial and the Germans will soon find ways to restore unimpeded access to the sea for their U-boats. Watch History's Raiders: Halt U-Boats in Zeebruge at TVGuide.com Join / Sign Up Keep track of your favorite shows and movies, across all your devices. The U-Boat Bases Of Brugge, Zeebrugge And Oostende . The purpose of the raids was to render the ports unusable as U-boat and destroyer bases. This was the last time that Victoria Crosses were awarded by ballot, although the rule remained within the Victoria Cross warrant. The usual remedy of increased destroyer raids was not possible, because of the difficulty in using Zeebrugge as a harbour. Submarine commander Werner Fürbringer, who was later held prisoner at Colsterdale near Masham, recalled guiding an ailing submarine home through the English Channel using the available currents, a sail made from canvas hammocks and some oars made from wooden bunks. The operation was dependent on the advance of the British armies in the Third Battle of Ypres and had no influence on events at Zeebrugge and Ostend. The Zeebrugge Raid (Dutch: Aanval op de haven van Zeebrugge; French: Raid sur Zeebruges) on 23 April 1918, was an attempt by the Royal Navy to block the Belgian port of Bruges-Zeebrugge.The British intended to sink obsolete ships in the canal entrance, to prevent German vessels from leaving port. The block ships were sunk in the wrong position and the canal was only obstructed for a few days. To combat the U-boat threat, the British tried to block Zeebrugge port in April 1918 by scuttling old ships in the entry channel. British Pathe film of the mass burial of British casualties of the Zeebrugge Raid, 1918, held in St James's Cemetery and the burial (24 coffins, nine identified, 15 unidentified) had a "Cross of Sacrifice" above it. The failure of the attack on the Zeebrugge mole resulted in the Germans concentrating their fire on the three blocking ships, HMS Thetis, Intrepid and Iphigenia, which were filled with concrete. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. The U-boat War in World War Two (Kriegsmarine, 1939-1945) and World War One (Kaiserliche Marine, 1914-1918) and the Allied efforts to counter the threat. Led by the energetic commander of the Dover Patrol, Roger Keyes, a specialist force of blockships, gunboats, submarines and assault parties attempted to ‘cork the bottle’ by wrecking the mole at Zeebrugge harbour and scuttling the blockships in the narrow main channel. Another attempt was made on 23 April, with a concurrent attack on Ostend. Over 40.000 pages on the officers, the boats, technology and the Allied efforts to counter the U-boat threat. Not actually in Zeebrugge port but on the canal round Brugge,possibly just to the southeast of Brugge city centre. [30] News of the raid was skilfully exploited to raise Allied morale and to foreshadow victory Possunt quia posse videntur ("They can because they think they can"). The two other ships were sunk at the narrowest point of the canal. Iris, Daffodil and the submarines were converted in Portsmouth. The raid, one of the Great War’s most daring naval exploits, was designed to close off the German-occupied Belgian port of Zeebrugge, a principal base for the U-boat packs that were preying on British shipping. The Zeebrugge Raid (Dutch: Aanval op de haven van Zeebrugge; Base, Bruges, Belgium. Zeebrugge Things to Do. The plan of attack was for the British raiding force to sink two obsolete cruisers in the canal mouth at Ostend and three at Zeebrugge, thus preventing raiding ships leaving Bruges. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. U-118 is found near Munitions Dock. Zeebrugge Pitt, Barrie. This contribution has not yet been formally edited by Britannica. [24] The crews were to abandon their submarines shortly before the collision with the viaduct, leaving the submarines to steer themselves automatically. He ruled the party from August 2. Bacon made preparations to bombard Ostend harbour. Tyrwhitt suggested a more ambitious operation to capture the mole and the town as a prelude to advancing on Antwerp. Articles such as this one were acquired and published with the primary aim of expanding the information on Britannica.com with greater speed and efficiency than has traditionally been possible. [40][41] In Dover there are two memorials, the Zeebrugge Bell with memorial plaque in the Town Hall, given to Dover by the King of the Belgians in 1918 and the Zeebrugge Memorial in St James's Cemetery, where a regular memorial service is held. [39] A ballot was similarly held for the crews of the assault vessels for the Zeebrugge Mole (Vindictive, Royal Daffodil and Iris II) and the embarked raiding parties. [4], The plan needed a rare combination of wind, tide and weather; to obtain surprise the monitors would need to be in position before dawn. [28], The average number of passages was maintained until June, when the rate fell to about one submarine per day, to an extent due to a bombardment of Zeebrugge on 9 June. German submarines based in Zeebrugge were responsible for a third of all allied shipping losses during the First World War. Zeebrugge : Prince, Stephen. French: Raid sur Zeebruges) on 23 April 1918, was an attempt by the Royal Navy to block the Belgian port of Bruges-Zeebrugge. Victoria Cross rules specify that four Victoria Crosses should be awarded this way (one to an officer, one to an NCO and two to other ranks) they were not observed and only two Victoria Crosses were awarded. The main U-boat bases in Germany were beyond striking range. Bacon also proposed an operation on 18 December, which combined Tyrwhitt's landing on the mole with a blocking operation. A visit to Bruges isn’t complete without a boat trip on its canals. If landings at the ports were successful, the forces involved would be doomed unless they were relieved by the advance of the armies in Flanders. Business. A message from Winston Churchill to the ex-servicemen was read to those assembled and the event was reported in The Deal, Walmer and Sandwich Mercury newspaper on 23 and 30 April 1964. The Ostend canal was the smaller and narrower of the two channels giving access to Bruges and so was considered a secondary target behind the Zeebrugge Raid. SM UB-17 was a German Type UB I submarine or U-boat in the German Imperial Navy (German: Kaiserliche Marine) during World War I.The submarine disappeared during a patrol in March 1918. We went to Brussels. Once they had reached Zeebrugge, Daffodil was to push Vindictive against the Mole until she could be secured and disembark the troops. St. Nazaire: Most Daring Raid Since Zeebrugge. Yet the boldness of the operation, contrasting with the caution of most naval activity in World War I, was greeted with fervor by the British authorities and public. There would have been plenty more had all volunteers been accepted. A bearing was taken from the buoy to the base of the mole at Zeebrugge by a ship sailing from the buoy to the mole, despite a mist which reduced visibility to a mile and the ship advancing perilously close to German shore batteries. After several months, the bombardments resumed but the Germans had been able to repair the damage. Menu. The ships came now directly over the sea from Germany to Flanders. The aircraft were met by seven Sopwith Pups from 4 (Naval) Squadron RNAS, which patrolled the coast from 5:45 a.m. as six Sopwith Triplanes of 10 (Naval) Squadron RNAS flew over the fleet. Mist and low cloud would make artillery observation from an aircraft impossible and the wind would have to be blowing from a narrow range of bearings or the smoke screen would be carried over the ships and out to sea, exposing them to view from the shore. 250 fighters acted as escorts for some of these raids.. World War I: The Great War Reviews | Instant Video Halt U-Boats in Zeebrugge Drawing on eyewitness accounts from. 1918 Ferry HMS Daffodil After Zeebrugge Raid on U-Boat Base Original Postcard. German submarines based in Zeebrugge were responsible for a third of all allied shipping losses during the First World War. The German U-boat bases were situated at Bruges, Zeebrugge and Ostend in Belgium. [12] Ostend was a larger target than Zeebrugge and could be seen from the sea, which made accurate shooting easier. Type: UC II: Shipyard: Blohm & Voss, Hamburg (Werk 266) Ordered: 29 Aug 1915: Launched: 1 Feb 1916: Commissioned: 18 Jun 1916 : Commanders: 26 Jun 1916 - 22 Apr 1917: Oblt. Flanders-based U-boats proved a major thorn in the side of the Royal Navy and maritime traffic in the North Sea and Channel. Firing from the monitors commenced just after 5:00 a.m. and at first fell short; many of the shells failed to explode, which left the aircraft unable to signal the fall of shot. As a result, the landing parties suffered heavy casualties as they attacked along the mole, failing to neutralize the gun batteries. The bombardment ships had taken position, the Motor Launches had formed a line, ready to generate the smokescreen and the escorts formed a square round the monitors. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The basic plan for the raid was to sink block ships at the entrance to Zeebrugge’s harbour to prevent the U-boats stationed nearby from patrolling the English Channel. The unsubdued German guns also made conditions extremely difficult for the blockships. One U-Boat is found on Heligoland Bight, marked as U-118, beached on a small islet in a cove. Barney’s Great Adventure: The Movie; John Candy. On the 6th of November would also be the first U-boat crew interned in the Netherlands. Self help; Naval Service Records; Library; Resources. Home; Research. [34] Among the dead was Wing Commander Frank Brock, the man who devised and commanded the smoke screen. A landing on the Zeebrugge mole was made by a battalion of Royal Marines to support the mission. Two more batteries were being built in early 1917 and between the main defences were many mobile guns, entrenchments and machine-gun nests. [3] Bacon devised a plan to destroy the lock gates at Zeebrugge by bombardment with the 15-inch guns of the monitors HMS Erebus, HMS Terror and HMS Marshal Soult. The bombardment became very accurate soon after and Marshal Soult hit the target with its twelfth shell and Erebus with its twenty-sixth. The British intended to sink obsolete ships in the canal entrance, to prevent German vessels from leaving port. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. [c] Very few of the participants were aware of the objective. The port of Zeebrugge is very large.It includes a container port, a ferry port and a cruise port.There are major ferry connections across the channel to England. Cruise Express Return Shuttle Service Your cruise shuttle to Bruges provides a return shuttle service from your cruise ship to Bruges and back at regular intervals (max. . Drawing on eyewitness accounts from survivors, expert testimony, rare photos and military documents from the battle, discover the events of April 22nd, 1918, when a flotilla of British warships led by the cruiser HMS Vindictive set sail for the fortified harbor of Zeebrugge, defended by coastal batteries, a deadly mole, and a seawall bristling with guns. Zeebrugge: The Centenary ConferenceLocation: Portsmouth Historic DockyardThe National Museum of the Royal Navy is to host a symposium, held in Portsmouth Historic Dockyard on the weekend of the 100th Anniversary of the Royal Navy and Royal Marine raid on the port of Zeebrugge. Monohull, catamaran, powerboat, with or without crew: our team will assist you in organizing your navigation in Zeebrugge! [23] The submarines C1 (Lieutenant A. C. Newbold) and C3 were old, manned by volunteer crews of one other officer and four ratings. Zeebrugge Raid, (22–23 April 1918), naval engagement of World War I. During the passage from Dover, C1 parted with its tow and arrived too late to take part in the operation. The aim was to block the Zeebrugge Canal, thereby denying U-boat access, although this meant assaulting a powerfully fortified German naval base. The failure of the Battle of Passchendaele made it clear that a naval assault was the only solution. [29], Newbolt wrote that the raid on Zeebrugge was part of an anti-submarine campaign which had lasted for five months, using patrols and minefields to close the straits and which continued despite the most destructive sortie achieved by the Germans during the war. [25][e] Sandford elected to steer C3 into the viaduct manually instead of depending on the automatic system. German submarines based in Zeebrugge were responsible for a third of all allied shipping losses during the First World War. Halt U-Boats in Zeebrugge Drawing on eyewitness accounts from survivors, expert testimony, rare photos and military documents from the battle, discover the events of April 22nd, 1918, when a flotilla of British warships led by the cruiser HMS Vindictive set sail for the fortified harbor of Zeebrugge, defended by coastal batteries, a deadly mole, and a seawall bristling with guns. [31], Of the 1,700 men involved in the operation, S. F. Wise recorded in 1981 that 300 were wounded and more than 200 killed. Desperate to counter the German U-boat offensive in World War I, British Commodore Sir Roger Keyes devised a bold plan to block the Bruges Canal in occupied Belgium, which linked German submarine pens to the open sea. The islet its beached on is the capture zone for a flag with its name U-118. waiting time 30 min. Zeebrugge : Pitt, Barrie. Halt U-boats in Zeebrugge McGreal, Stephen, 1954- Zeebrugge and Ostend raids 1918 Pitt, Barrie. An international port, a family beach resort and the ‘capital of fish’ – that is Zeebrugge in a nutshell. Donald Sommerville is a writer and editor specializing in military history. Zeebrugge is a map featured in the Battlefield 1: Turning Tides North Sea expansion.. The Zeebrugge raid to halt the U-boats would become the progenitor of commando raids in WWII. Questions or concerns? Read more. The first opportunity for the raid was early April 1918 and on 2 April the fleet sailed and Zeebrugge was bombed by 65 Squadron from Dunkirk. Zeebrugge Raid, (22–23 April 1918), naval engagement of World War I. UB-59 scuttled 5 October 1918 off Zeebrugge at during the evacuation of Belgium by … By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Knokke Boat Zeebrugge: Tickets & Tours‎ ... Sub is no-longer there ,gone to the scrapyard two weets ago So there is no point in visiting Zeebrugge is a town not worth visiting. To protect their U-boats, the Germans built a U-boat bunker in the Bruges harbour. ZEEHAVEN VAN BRUGGE. If the attempt began with surprise and the bombardment ships were obscured by a smoke screen, the German guns at Knokke might not have time accurately to return fire before the bombardment ended. Battered by gunfire on the approach, Vindictive reached the mole in the wrong position. Leading Stoker Norbert McCrory recalled that "On 23rd Feb 1918.... We... received a wireless [communication] asking for volunteers to the numbers of eleven men, for special service. Let us know. A third patrol later shot down a German seaplane into Ostend harbour and lost one fighter. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The ships were modified for this task. The Flanders flotilla was constituted in March 1915 at the port of Bruges in occupied Belgium.Commanded by Kapitänleutnant Karl Bartenbach, the force comprised nine UB-and seven UC-type U-boats, small mass-produced coastal types suited for operations in the closed waters of the Channel and the North Sea. The History Channel : Ultimate WWI Collection : 14 Episodes : Most Decorated: The Doughboys , WWI: Death of Glory , Secrets of World War I , The First Dogfighters , Red Baron and The Wings of Death , Airships , Mystery U-Boat of WWI , World War One: Jutland , World War One: The Somme , Halt U-Boats in Zeebrugge , John J. Pershing: The Iron General , Dear Home: Letters from … Capture the mole in the raid was an overwhelmingly English venture but 12 were! The Movie ; John Candy Victoria Crosses were awarded by ballot, Victoria Crosses Bight. Devised and commanded the smoke screen 4:45 a.m., with or without crew: our team will assist in. Destroyer HMS Myrmidon attacked by U-boat 23 October 1914 ( Photo ships, click to enlarge Contents... By 4:45 a.m., with the bearing and distance the 6th of November would be! Viaduct manually instead of depending on the officers, the Germans built U-boat... 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