The rupture proceeded at about 2.8 km/s (1.7 mi/s; 10,000 km/h; 6,300 mph), beginning off the coast of Aceh and proceeding north-westerly over about 100 seconds. The eastern shores of Sri Lanka were the hardest hit since it faced the epicentre of the earthquake, while the southwestern shores were hit later, but the death toll was just as severe. Megathrust earthquakes occur at subduction zones at destructive convergent plate … 1,500-metre-high (5,000 ft) thrust ridges created by previous geologic activity along the fault had collapsed, generating landslides several kilometres wide. Furthermore, at the coastal town of Kanyakumari, the seabed was exposed briefly before a large wall of water can be seen on the horizon and subsequently flooding the town.  The second wave was the largest; it came from the west-southwest within five minutes of the first wave. Coastal villages were destroyed by the tsunami waves. These volatiles rise into the overlying plate, causing partial melting and the formation of magma. Water sanitation and health: WHO technical notes for emergencies. These gaps may be related to potential sources of future megathrust ea … show that very large (M 8.5+) earthquakes preferentially rupture planar, or flat (low-curvature) megathrust interfaces; they do this highlighting a spatial correlation between the rupture areas of such earthquakes, with the gradient of subduction zone dip (‘flatness’, or ‘planarity’) calculated from the Slab1.0 subduction zone geometry database (Hayes et al. , Tidal surges also occurred along the Western Australian coast that lasted for several hours, resulting in boats losing their moorings and two people needing to be rescued. This quickly elevated the height and increased the speed of waves, destroying the nearby Indonesian town of Lhoknga. 2004 Indian Ocean disaster. It displaced the North Pole by 25 mm (0.98 in). Similarly, the natural Chandler wobble of the Earth, which in some cases can be up to 15 m (50 ft), will eventually offset the minor wobble produced by the earthquake.  In 2008, a team of scientists working on Phra Thong, a barrier island along the hard-hit west coast of Thailand, reported evidence of at least three previous major tsunamis in the preceding 2,800 years, the most recent from about 700 years ago. There were two to five tsunamis that coincided with the local high tide in some areas. On the island's east coast, the tsunami contaminated wells on which many villagers relied for drinking water.  The rupture area of the 1861 event appears to be very similar to that for the 2005 event, suggesting that it can be regarded as a repeat event. Based on scientific surveys from Ayeyarwaddy Delta through Taninthayi Division, it was revealed that tsunami heights along the Myanmar coast were between 0.4–2.9 m (1 ft 4 in–9 ft 6 in). Affected or destroyed towns on the region's north and east coast were Pidie Regency, Samalanga, Panteraja, and Lhokseumawe. In Yemen, the tsunami killed two people with a maximum runup of 2 m (6.6 ft). Similarly, the overriding plate consists of two microplates, the Sunda and Burma plates.  The impact on coastal fishing communities and the people living there, some of the poorest in the region, has been devastating with high losses of income earners as well as boats and fishing gear. The earthquake hit at just before 1am GMT or 7.58am local time on 26 December 2004. 104, No. These interplate earthquakes are the planet's most powerful, with moment magnitudes (M w) that can exceed 9.0.Since 1900, all earthquakes of magnitude 9.0 or greater have been megathrust earthquakes. München, 11/15/2017. Numerous aftershocks were reported off the Andaman Islands, the Nicobar Islands and the region of the original epicentre in the hours and days that followed. 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